The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on research and development (R&D) was a major factor for the global innovation activity in 2020. Prior to the pandemic, global R&D spending by both governments and private capital had been steadily increasing for a decade, resulting in a doubling of spending. In the US, growth was slower than in other countries, especially compared to China, causing the US share of global R&D to decline. At the end of 2020, it was clear that China's economy ended the year with fewer losses compared to the developed world, and local companies continued to increase R&D spending, which will contribute to Chinese innovation competition in the coming years.
This 2020 report consists of several thematic blocks which will be retained in subsequent annual editions. First, there is a review and analysis of the most relevant information on countries' expenditures on research and development (R&D), in particular, the estimates of expenditures according to R&D World, the volume of federal funding for R&D in the USA for 2021, and the results of the annual European Innovation Scoreboard rating of innovative companies. Secondly, the results of international patenting data by country and industry are presented, using the latest available data for 2019. Third, given the importance of private companies' capital for innovation activity, a separate block includes the results of initial public offerings (IPOs) in 2020 on major stock exchanges (USA) and other platforms, as well as data on mergers and acquisitions, which remain the most important alternative to public offerings for raising capital by technology companies. Finally, the last block deals with changes in the innovation development strategies of the leading countries. The focus here is made on the implications of Brexit for the science and technology development of the UK and the EU, taking into account the parties' agreement on a trade deal for the period after the country's exit from the Union since January 1, 2021.
Kirichenko I., Kravtsov A., Mamedyarov Z., Sheliubskaya N. Science and Innovation in 2019Ц2020: Resourcing, First Post-Crisis Assessments. Analysis & Forecasting. Journal of IMEMO, 2021, no 1, pp. 13-30. https://doi.org/10.20542/afij-2021-1-13-30